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A History of Light and Lighting Page 4

<   HISTORY OF LIGHT AND LIGHTING PAGE 3


DICHROIC LAMPS - (a 1955)
These special reflector floods incorporate a dichroic reflector. In a lamp with a conventional reflector, much of the infrared energy (heat) from the source is reflected into the beam. In a lamp using a dichroic reflector, some infrared energy is dissipated out through the reflector, and not into the beam, resulting in a cooler beam. These 'cool beam' lamps are particularly useful for museum or gallery lighting applications where excess heat [INFRARED] could damage precious artwork or artifacts. Dichroic lamps are manufactured in MR11, MR16 and in various PAR sizes to PAR38.

ALTMAN STAGE LIGHTING - (c 1955)
The Altman Stage Lighting Company (U.S.A.) was established in the 1950's and has become one of the leading manufacturers of stage lighting fixtures, in the world. The Altman 360Q series of ellipsoidal reflector spotlights have become an international standard for performance and efficiency vs size and weight. Altman manufacturers a full range of all equipment types in various sizes and wattages. The company is located in Yonkers New York.
The company is very much a family business, started by Charlie Altman. In the start-up days, Charlie liked to compete with his brothers; Edward owned Capital Stage Lighting, Arthur owned Eastern Stage Lighting. Charlie Altman, Alice his wife, and other family members worked hard over the years. By the 1980's, Altman was the dominate lighting fixture manufacturer in North America and perhaps in the entire world. Alice Altman died in 1990. Charlie Altman died on May 5, 1995. He lived to be over 90 years old. The company is now run by Robert Altman, by children of Ronald Altman, and by other family members.

Altman Stage Lighting
57 Alexander Street
Yonkers, NY, 10701, USA
914-476-7987
800-4ALTMAN
WWW: http//www.altmanltg.com

 

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COLORTRAN - (a 1955)
Colortran is a leading American manufacturer of theatre and television lighting fixtures, dimmers, control systems and accessories. In 1964 Colortran won an Academy Award for its development of the tungsten halogen fixture. During the 1970's and 1980's the company built a full and comprehensive range of products. The company changed ownership several times becoming first 'Berkey Colortran' and then later 'Lee Colortran'. In the late 1990's, the product line was taken over again by 'NSI Corporation', an already existing manufacturer of stage fixtures, dimming and control.
Colortran
A division of NSI Corporation
9126 SW Ridder Road
Wilsonville, OR, 97070, USA
503-576-6060
WWW:http//www.colortran.com

 

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SCR DIMMER - SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER - (1958)
S.C.R. (SCR) - In 1958, General Electric announced the introduction of the silicon controlled rectifier. This semiconductor device was about to revolutionize dimming applications for theatre and television lighting around the world. Previous to this time, dimming systems were large, generally inefficient and mechanically very complex.
The SCR allowed the design of compact, remote controlled dimming systems - with no moving parts in the dimmer. By 1960 [KLIEGL] was installing SCR systems, and [CENTURY] Lighting was installing their C-Core line. The SCR is still the basis of modern electronic dimming systems today.

The typical modern SCR dimmer employs two PNPN semiconductor devices commonly know as silicon control rectifiers, or thyristors, connected in inverse parallel and in series with the lamp load. A signal applied to the control gates of these devices is utilized to control their conduction period. The dimmer thereby controls the effective power dissipated in the lamp load and, thus the intensity of the lamps. The dimmer is completely inert and requires no maintenance.

 

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MANITOBA THEATRE CENTRE (MTC) - (1958)
M.T.C. - In Canada, the 1950's to mid-1960's constituted the "regional theatre era". Each province was endowed with a government supported, permanent professional theatre. The Manitoba Theatre Centre founded in 1958 was the country's first. It was built following the landmark report issued by the government sponsored Massey-Levesque Commission which 1.) affirmed such a thing as Canadian culture did exist; 2.) devised the current system of government arts funding; and 3.) recommended the establishment of a federal arts funding body (The Canada Council) to be supplemented by provincial and municipal agencies.
The Manitoba Theatre Centre is still active today, producing or co-producing approximately 10 - 12 productions a year, between its two stages (Mainstage and Warehouse Theatres).

 

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LASER - (1960)
The 'laser' - or - (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) was perfected in 1960, by research scientist Theodore Maiman at the Hughes Laboratory in Malibu California. The actual term 'laser' originated about 1957 by Gordon Gould (40) at the University of Columbia, where his notarized notebooks show the basic laser concept. Gould tried to interest American defense officials in the development of a potential 'death-ray', but as he was involved in some left-wing political activities in the early 1940's, the Defense Department classified his patent application secret, denied him security clearance, and confiscated his notebooks.
Physicists Charles H. Townes and his brother-in-law Arthur Schawlow were the first to actually apply for a patent on the laser and they were the first to publish their findings in scientific journals.

The He-Ne laser (red beam) was in commercial use, by 1968. Today many different types of lasers exist, for a wide range of applications. Lasers are used for surgery, for cutting metal, for determining distance, for projecting 3-dimensional holographic images, for computer printing and for entertainment lighting applications.

Laser light differs from ordinary light in four ways. Briefly it is much more intense, directional, monochromatic and coherent. Most lasers consist of a column of active material with a partly reflecting mirror at one end and a fully reflecting mirror at the other. In a typical solid laser material, a ruby crystal, the active ingredients are chromium atoms interspersed in the crystal lattice of aluminum oxide. The laser is primed by pumping these atoms, by means of a flash of intense light, to an excited state. This causes the system to produce a cascade of photons, all of the same wavelength and all in step with each other.

See also: [HOLOGRAM/HOLOGRAPHY]

 

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HOLOGRAM/HOLOGRAPHY - (a 1960)
The term 'holography' was coined by Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor in 1947, to describe a new form of three-dimensional images. His work related to the area of electron beam microscopes, however it became evident that a coherent light source was required to make a hologram and it was not until the laser was fully developed that his concepts were realized.
In the early, 1960's Emmet N. Leith and Juris Upatnieks of the University of Michigan working with a laser, created the first hologram or holographic image.

A hologram is created by splitting the beam of light from a laser into two, using a beam splitter and mirrors. One beam illuminates a photographic plate (the hologram). The other beam illuminates the object and reflects its image to the plate. The two beams set up an interference pattern that is recorded on film. The object can be captured in three-dimensions. To reconstruct the image, simply shine a laser of identical wavelength on the developed holographic plate. The image forms in mid-air. If you move around the image you will be able to view it from different angles in three-dimensions. Tear off a small piece of the hologram and you will still see the complete three-dimensional image. All of the information is contained in any part of the hologram.

 

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LUMINAIRE - (a 1960)
A lighting fixture is properly referred to as a 'Fixture' or as an 'Instrument', in North America.....as a 'Light Fitting' or a 'Lantern' in Britain...and as a Luminaire (the 'e' is silent), in other parts of the world and by the engineering community. All of these terms are taken to mean: 'a complete lighting unit', usually consisting of; a metal housing, socket, lamp, reflector, electrical cord, connector and (lens). The term 'luminaire' is also commonly used by electrical engineers and architectural lighting designers. Although the word luminaire (from the French) has been in use for sometime, it is only in the 1960's that the term started to be used in North American theatre by the architectural and theatre lighting industries.


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CCT THEATRE LIGHTING - (a 1960)
CCT was a large British based manufacturer of high quality stage and studio lighting fixtures. Installations include; the Bolshoi (Moscow), La Scala (Spain), the Lido (Paris), the Orpheum (Vancouver), the Sydney Opera House and the National Theatre (Britain). W.J. Furse & Co. Limited (Nottingham, England) acquired CCT about 1988.


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FOUR STAR STAGE LIGHTING - (a 1960)
Four Star is a large New York based lighting company with a long reputation for lighting sales, rentals and service.
Four Star Lighting
30 Warren Place
Mount Vernon, N.Y., USA
914-667-9200.

 

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IMERO FIORENTINO ASSOCIATES - (1960)
Founded in 1960, Imero Fiorentino Associates was originally a firm of leading television lighting directors and consultants. The firm has now expanded to provide lighting and staging consulting to concert, corporate and industrial projects. IRA has offices in New York, Las Vegas and Hollywood.


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TEATRO - (a 1960)
Teatro is an Italian manufacturer of high quality stage and studio lighting fixtures. They make a wide range of fixtures from fixed and zoom ellipsoidal reflector spotlights, to floodlights and fresnel type fixtures.
Teatro
slr Via Inghilterra
2-4602 Castel Goffredo (Mn) Italy
Tel +39 (0)376-780702
Fax:+39 (0)376-780888

 

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WWW:http://www.ffa.ucalgary.ca/usitt/historyhistory

 

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QUARTZ HALOGEN LAMP - (1960)
(Also the TUNGSTEN HALOGEN) lamp was introduced in 1960 for use by the stage and studio market. General Electric often claims to have invented the halogen lamp in 1957.
The bulb of a typical tungsten filament lamp, blackens with age as the filament boils off and the tungsten is deposited on the bulb wall. Halogen lamps are 'self-cleaning'. Halogen vapor present in the lamp combines with particles of tungsten that have been evaporated from the filament and redeposits them on the filament. For this process to take place, bulb wall temperatures should not be below. 482ø F., (250 øC.) Hot spots on the bulb wall may go as high as 1250ø F., (700ø C.) Lamp base temperatures should not exceed 622ø F., (350ø C.), as above that point, lead wires may deteriorate and the basing cement may loosen, causing premature lamp failure.

 

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METAL HALIDE LAMP - (a 1960)
The first metal halide lamp was developed about 1960. Metal Halide lamps are essentially mercury high pressure discharge lamps that have additional metal halides in their arc tubes. Metal Halide lamps provide improved efficiency and improved color rendering qualities over mercury lamps. The modern metal halide lamp has a luminous efficiency of 85-115 lumens per watt.


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THORN LIGHTING - (a 1960)
Thorn was a leading European manufacturer of high quality lighting fixtures, lamps and accessories. Their lamp division was taken over by the General Electric Company in the early 1990's. Several years later the company ceased all operations.


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'CINEMOID' COLOR FILTERS - (a 1960)
In the early days of the electric filament lamp, gelatin color filters were used to color stage lighting fixtures. Gelatin filters dissolved when wet, and could not withstand the high heat from the tungsten halogen lamp (developed in the early 1960's). As a result, a new type of filter, 'Cinemoid', was developed by [STRAND ELECTRIC] (London). Cinemoid used a colored acetate sheeting, with inherent self-extinguishing properties. Less than 60 colors were shown by a 1966 product catalog sheet. 'Cinemoid' is no longer produced and has been replaced by polyester based materials, such as 'Roscolux' and 'Lee' filters.
See also: [ROSCOLUX], [LEE]

 

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LIGHTING TEMPLATE - (a 1960)
Lighting designers working in theatre and television often must produce a drawing known as the 'light plot'. This drawing will use a number of specialized symbols to represent the specific type of lighting fixtures, required. The fixtures will usually be shown to scale, and will be drawn in their exact position.
About 1960, the plastic drafting template was developed, specifically for the lighting designer. This greatly assisted in the drawing of lighting symbols. Although plastic drawing templates are now widely available through any stage lighting supply company, Lighting Associates has long produced a number of different lighting templates specifically for the lighting, sound and scenic designer.

Lighting Associates
P.O. Box 229
Chester, CT, 06412, USA
Tel: (203) 526-9315

 


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LIGHT BULB JOKES - (c 1960)
Somewhere around 1960, the 'light bulb' jokes started to appear throughout North America. Some of the best of the worst, are as follows:
Q: How many Californians does it take to change a light bulb?
A: Six. One to turn the bulb, one for support, and four to share the experience.

Q: How many Oregonians does it take to screw in a light bulb?
A: Five. One to change the bulb and four more to chase off the Californians who have come up to share the experience.

Q: How many New Yorkers does it take to screw in a light bulb?
A: None of your damn business!

Q: How many Union Electricians does it take to screw in a light bulb?
A: 50 - its in the contract.

Q: How many straight San Franciscans does it take to screw in a light bulb?
A: Both of them.

Q: How many WASPs does it take to change a light bulb?
A: Two. One to call the electrician and one to mix the martinis.

Q: How many Psychiatrists does it take to change a light bulb?
A: Only one, but the bulb has got to really WANT to change.

Q: How many `Real Women' does it take to change a light bulb?
A: None: A 'Real Woman' would have plenty of real men around to do it.

Q: How many `Real Men' does it take to change a light bulb?
A: None: `Real Men' aren't afraid of the dark.

Q: How many Jewish mothers does it take to screw in a light bulb?
A: None. ("That's all right...I'll just sit here in the dark...")

Q: How many mice does it take to screw in a light bulb?
A: Two. (Hint:They are small enough to fit inside).

Q: How many valley girls does it take to change a light bulb?
A: Oooh, like, manual labor? Gag me with a spoon! For sure.

Q: How many managers does it take to change a light bulb?
A: Three. One to get the bulb and two to get the phone number to dial one of their subordinates to actually change it.

Q: How many lawyers does it take to change a light bulb?
A: How many can you afford?

Q: How many Jewish-American Princesses does it take to screw in a light bulb?
A: Two. One to get a Tab and one to call Daddy.

Q: How many accountants does it take to screw in a light bulb?
A: What kind of answer did you have in mind?

Q: How many mystery writers does it take to screw in a light bulb?
A: Two, one to screw it almost all the way in and the other to give it a surprising twist at the end.

Q: How many consultants does it take to change a light bulb?
A: I'll have an estimate for you a week from Monday.

Q: How many people from New Jersey does it take to change a lightbulb?
A: Three. One to change the light bulb, one to be a witness, and the third to shoot the witness.

 

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ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH THEATRE TECHNICIANS - (1961)
A.B.T.T. (ABTT) - was founded in 1961 to provide a forum for discussion among theatre technicians, to collect and disseminate information of a technical nature and to advise and assist all those involved in the planning and construction or reconstruction of new and existing theatres. The organization is based in London.


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SKIRPAN ELECTRONICS - (1965)
Skirpan Electronics was founded in 1965 by Stephen J. Skirpan. The company (located in Long Island City, N.Y.) rapidly grew to be a leading manufacturer of computer assisted lighting control systems. Their control system known as the "Autocue", used a light pencil and video monitor, for operator input. Their "Astral" dimmer was one of the first compact dimmers produced by the industry. It was a small 'strip' (1.75" high), dimmer, packaged for installation in a standard 19" rack. Unfortunately Skirpan Electronics closed their doors about 1980.


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ASSOCIATED DESIGNERS OF CANADA - (1965)
A.D.C. (ADC) - Founded in 1965, (Canada) the A.D.C. represents professional designers working in the theatre and film industries. Members include; set, costume, lighting and sound designers located across Canada. The organization is dedicated to promoting professional and public recognition of the designer's role, as well as increasing communications among Canadian designers. Although not a union, the A.D.C. provides a similar function, as does the United Scenic Artists, in America. Currently, the A.D.C. has approximately 150 members, located across Canada.


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LIGHT EMITTING DIODE - (a 1965)
The light emitting diode (LED) is p-n junction semiconductor lamp which emits radiation then biased in a forward direction. The emitted radiation may be either invisible (infrared) or in the visible spectrum. Visible solid state lamps are used for long life indicator service. Infrared diodes have outputs carefully matched to silicon photoreceivers. They are used in conjunction with the receivers, for counting, sensing, and positioning applications. LED's generally operate in the range of 1 to 3 volts at currents of 10 to 100, milliamperes continuous.
LED's are commonly used in indicator lighting applications. Due to their very long life and low operating current, they are ideal replacements for incandescent indicator lights. Early LED's came in red only. Next green and amber were introduced. By the mid 1990's blue and white LED's had been developed.


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PABLO LIGHT SHOW - (a 1966)
Pablo, was a New York City company of light show artists, and technicians that performed throughout the late 1960's and 1970's. Experts in projection techniques, the artists at Pablo provided some of the most detailed and dynamic projection shows, using a wide range of photographic and hand painted slides.
One special projection technique used, was the 'amoeba'. The amoeba was performed using a horizontal (overhead type) projector and two large watch glasses of about 14" and 12" in diameter. The larger glass was placed on the projector and filled with various oils, alcohols and waters, colored with dye. Next the smaller dish was gently placed on top of the mixture and then 'squashed' in time with the music. When projected on a 20 ft. x 20 ft. rear screen behind a performer the effect was usually quite spectacular, as a giant, kinetic, dancing blob constantly changed in color, complexity and form. It was totally psychedelic.

Pablo's multi-media presentations included theatre and television productions, corporate presentations, fashion shows, discotheques and concerts. The Pablo Light Show provided visual support to virtually all of the major rock groups of the time. The founders of the company included: Patrick Firpo, Jay Moss and Bob Quinn.

 

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JOSHUA LIGHT SHOW - (a 1966)
Under the creative guidance of Joshua White, the Joshua Light Show Group consisted of several talented projection artists and technicians. For a period of time, the New York City based group was the resident light show at the Fillmore East. They also provided special effects for films (including Midnight Cowboy), stage productions and television.
The Joshua Light Show provided the colorful background to many musical performers and groups in the late 1960's and early 1970's. The show was projected on a large rear screen (20' x 40' typical) and used a wide range of projection equipment, including slide, overhead and film projectors. Equipment was typically modified to suit the specific needs of the 'light artists.' Usually working from a scaffolding behind the rear screen, the artists would create a kinetic and always changing blend of light and imagery, always synchronized with the music. The affect was mind blowing (or so it seemed at the time).

 

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SODIUM LAMP - (HIGH PRESSURE) - (1966)
H.P.S. (HPS) - The high pressure sodium lamp has steadily developed and gained in popularity, since its introduction 1966. It provides a more economical source of illumination than mercury, fluorescent, or incandescent and has a more natural color than low pressure sodium. The H.P.S. sodium lamp has a luminous efficacy of approximately 80-140 lumens per watt.
See also: SODIUM LAMP - (LOW PRESSURE)

 

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'LEE' COLOR FILTERS - (1967)
'Lee' (by Lee Electric Lighting, Britain), manufacturers a wide range of filter and light control products for stage, film and television lighting applications. The company was founded by David Holmes an accomplished lighting cameraman. The company is known around the world for their extensive product range of color filters for the stage and color correction filters for the film and television industries. All Lee's light control and color effect filters are made from a tough polyester film base, which is impervious to water, is totally transparent and has a high melting point. 1500 meter rolls of the film are coated with specially prepared lacquers. Each formula is recorded on a computer, to ensure the exact reproduction of color, from batch to batch. The lacquer coating is applied to both sides of the film, is also tough and flexible and has a high resistance to water and heat.
Lee Filters
2301 W. Victory Blvd.
Burbank, CA, 91506, USA
818-238-1220
800-576-5055
Canada: 416-890-0935

 

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COLOR ORGAN, (EARLY ELECTRONIC) - (c 1967)
For centuries, man tried to provide a scientific correlation between the color spectrum and the audio spectrum. It wasn't until mid 1960's that a practical color organ device was developed for entertainment lighting applications. This was the 'electronic' color organ. At first transistors and then later SCR's were used to drive a number of incandescent lamps. The typical color organ had three (3) channels. Different colored lamps would be attached to each channel. Each channel would be controlled by a separate audio input, tuned to a specific audio frequency. A typical three (3) channel unit might be wired as follows:

    Channel    Lamp Color        Frequency    ------------------------------------------      1          Red           Hi    (10-20Kz)      2          Green         Mid   ( 5-10Kz)      3          Blue          Low   ( 0  5Kz) 
When activated, the 3 channels of lights would automatically dance and respond to the beat of the music. More advanced color organs might contain as many as 15 individual channels. This color organ became popular for discotheque and psychedelic lighting applications. Today, many entertainment lighting control boards now also contain advanced color organ functions.

 

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HMI LAMP - (1969)
The HMI lamp (mercury medium arc iodides), first appeared in Germany. These metal halide lamps were developed by OSRAM GmbH to meet a need established by the German Federal Television System in 1969, and their use quickly spread throughout Europe and to the rest of the world. Although originally designed for television lighting, they are now used for location film lighting and as a source for many common followspot spotlights. The modern HMI lamp is highly efficient (100-110 lumens per watt), and produces a daylight type spectrum with a color temperature of 5600 degrees K. Lamp wattages currently range from 200 to more than 12,000 watts.
The HTI lamp is a more recent version of the HMI. They area available with an integral reflector and are often used in followspots, fiber optic illuminators and in slide projectors.

Although not widely know in the name HMI, the H stands for mercury (Hg), M indicates presence of Metals and the I refers to the addition of halogen components (iodide, bromide). HMI is the registered trademark of Osram Lighting.

See also: [OSRAM] and [METAL HALIDE].

 

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USHIO - (c 1969)
Ushio is a leading manufacturer of stage, studio and specialized lamp products.
Ushio America, Inc.
20101 S. Vermont Avenue
Torrance, CA 90502
Tel: (800) 326-1960
Tel: (213) 329-1960

 

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GREAT AMERICAN MARKET - (a 1970)
G.A.M. (GAM) - The Great American Market Company supplies a great many products to the professional theatre and stage industries. Products include color filters, [GOBOS], projection equipment, lighting control systems, and other speciality products. They are also the North American distributor for the RDS projection system, marked under the name of the Great American Scene Machine.
Great American Market
826 N. Cole Avenue
Hollywood, CA 90038
Tel: (213) 461-0200
Tel: (213) 461-4308

 

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EARLY AUTOMATED LIGHTING - (a 1970)
Automated luminaires first started to appear in the USA in the early 1970's. One of the first was the 'Moto-Light' manufactured by Dyna-Light, Springfield, MO. Another early automated lighting fixture was the 'Mac Spot' from Europe. The Mac Spot retrofitted a conventional Par64 fixture, allowing remote horizontal and vertical positioning (physical movement of the fixture). It did nothing else. Modern automated fixtures, in addition to pan and tilt movement, also provide variable color, focus and template adjustments.
See also: [VARI-LITE] and [AUTOMATED LIGHTING FIXTURES].

 

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AVAB - (1972)
AVAB Electronik AB, one of the world's leading manufacturers of professional stage and studio dimming products, has its headquarters in Gothenberg, Sweden. Their control and dimming systems have always been considered to be state-of-the-art in design and engineering around the world. AVAB purchased EMIL [NIETHAMMER] (c 1982) a large German manufacturer of lighting fixtures. Avab founded around 1972 now also has an office in the USA.
AVAB Transtechnik AB
Salsm„staregatan 32
S-422 46 Hisings Backa Sweden
+46 31 585 200
Email: sales@avab.se

 

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DHA LIGHTING INC - (1972)
(D.H.A.) - Founded by lighting director [DAVID HERSEY], the British firm specializes in lighting equipment design and manufacturing, with products ranging from slides to moving effects, fiber optics and software. The company also specializes in etching metal and glass [GOBOS] from custom artwork. In North America, the company is represented by [ROSCO].
DHA Lighting Ltd.
284-302 Waterloo Road
London SE1 8RQ
Tel: 44-171-771-2900
Tel: 44-171-771-2901

 


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THEATRE MAGIC - (1974)
Founded in 1974, Columbus OH USA based Theatre Magic, sells special effect equipment and accessories for the stage and studio industries. They have an extensive range of etched metal projection patterns [GOBOS]. In 1992 they changed their name to SFX DESIGN.
SFX Design
6099 Godown Road
Colombus OH 43235 USA
Tel: 614-459-3222
Fax: 614-459-5087

 

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AUTOMATED LIGHTING FIXTURES - (c 1975)
The development of the automated lighting fixture in the early 1980's caused a revelation and a breakthrough in entertainment lighting design. Although several different automated fixtures first appeared in the 1970's, most were crude and mechanically awkward. Early products included the 'MacSpot' and the 'Moto-lite'. They used conventional stage lighting fixtures (PARS's, lekos, etc,) fitted with a large mechanized yoke. The yoke allowed the fixtures to pan, tilt, and not much else.
In 1981 the American company [VARI-LITE] was the first to make a successful automated fixture that gained wide acceptance. The fixture was called the Vari*Lite and allowed remote control of pan, tilt, and color. The fixtures were and are still today, mechanically, electrically and optically complex. For this reason Vari*lite provides a technician, on-site to service equipment as needed.

Today, there are now several other manufacturers providing reliable and comprehensive automated lighting fixtures. Both [HIGH END SYSTEMS INC] and [MARTIN], now provide a wide range of automated lighting products gaining acceptance throughout the world. Other manufactures include Clay Paky, Coemar Nat and [STRAND].

 

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ELECTRONIC THEATRE CONTROLS INC. - (1975)
E.T.C. (ETC) is a leading American manufacturer of theatre; control, dimming, and lighting fixtures. Their dimmers and control systems are clearly among the best in the industry. In the mid 1990's E.T.C. developed a series of 575 watt spotlights, known as the 'Source-4' series. These fixtures are generally smaller, more compact, and more efficient than any similar fixtures, available to date - marking a new generation in fixture design and development.
E.T.C. also makes a fixture known as the 'Source-4-Par'. This fixture, provides a beam similar to a PAR64 lamp, except the beam is round and not oval. All fixtures use the same single ended tungsten halogen lamp, however the beam spread is controlled by using one of the four 'spread lenses' included with each fixture, allowing; spot, medium flood, wide flood and flood capabilities, all from the same fixture.

Electronic Theatre Controls
3030 Laura Lane
Middleton, WI, 53562, USA
608-831-4116

 

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INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF LIGHTING DESIGNERS - (a 1975)
I.A.L.D. (IALD) - is a professional organization for lighting designers whose education and training may be in architecture, interior design, theatre or electrical engineering. Dedicated to the professional advancement of lighting design, IALD members may not be involved in any way with the sale of lighting products.
I.A.L.D.
18 East 16th Street
Suite 208
New York, NY, 10003
212-206-1291.

 

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DESISTI LIGHTING - (a 1975)
De Sisti Lighting, (also Desisti) is a leading manufacturer of high quality lighting fixtures and accessories for the stage, film and television industries. Desisti makes a wide range of spotlights and floodlights, for both incandescent and discharge type lamps. They have offices and representatives, located around the world.
De Sisti Lighting Srl
00040 Cecchina - Albano Laziale (Rome) - Italy
Tel: 06/9344414
Fax: 06/9343489

 

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JULIAT, ROBERT - (a 1975)
Robert Juliet a French based firm, manufactures a broad line of HMI and tungsten profile spotlights, fresnels, and followspots. Many units are of extremely high quality in respect to design, engineering and construction.
Robert Juliat
62/64 rue Danielle, Casanova F
93207 Saint-Denis Cedex
tel: (33) 1.42.43.35.35
fax: 1.42.43.08.05.

 

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THEATRE BOOKS - (1975)
Theatre Books (Book shop) was established in 1975 in Toronto Canada. It is a large specialized store (at 11 St. Thomas Street) handling a vast collection of arts, theatre and motion picture books. (416) 922-7175.


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AMX192 - (c 1975)
AMX192 is an older control protocol standard for dimmers. The standard, adapted by the United States Institute for Theatre Technology, is non proprietary and may be used by all manufacturers. AMX192 uses a small twisted pair cable to communicate with a maximum of 192 dimmers. The data signal is 'de-multiplexed' (usually at the dimmers) resulting in individual 'analog' control signals (usually 0-10 volt, DC). A newer control protocol [DMX512] provides digital control to a maximum of 512 dimmers, on a single twisted pair cable.


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'ROSCOLUX' COLOR FILTERS - (1978)
'Roscolux' color filters were introduced by the American company [ROSCO] in about 1978. Today Roscolux with more than 140 different colors has become one of the most recognized and widely used filters in the world. The filters are designed to withstand the high temperatures of stage and studio lighting fixtures, unlike earlier filters made from acetate or gelatin. Some filter manufacturers simply surface coat clear plastic to form their colors. These filters may scratch and the surface color may actually vaporize from the surface, through atmospheric contact. Roscolux filters are colored when the plastic is in the resin stage before the polymer is cast into film. This results in a tough, resistant and durable filter with the color actually part of the plastic, instead of just applied to it.


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WESTSUN - (1978)
From its inception in 1978 as a local lighting rental house, Westsun has grown to a recognized international supplier to the event and entertainment industries. With companies and equipment stocks located throughout Canada and the United States, Westsun offers comprehensive lighting, sound, staging, and drapery - sales and rentals. Extensive fabrication shops allow for the design and construction of automated scenery, specialized staging and custom lighting products. In 1997, Westsun International Inc. moved into a new 70,000 square foot corporate headquarters in Winnipeg, Canada. Recently, Westsun Show Systems Inc. has provided lighting or sound to a number of 'mega-musicals', including; Disney's 'The Lion King', 'Show Boat', 'The Phantom of the Opera', 'Rag Time' and 'Sunset Boulevard'.
Westsun Winnipeg Inc.
Attn: Marc Raymond
1390 Pacific Avenue
Winnipeg, Canada, R3E 1G6
204-774-7800
800-WESTSUN
WWW: http://www.westsun.comhistoryhistory

 

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TIR SYSTEMS - (a 1980)
The commerical light pipe is a Canadian invention, developed by TIR Systems Ltd., (Burnaby, BC). Single point source luminaires direct light into hollow linear light guides to produce, through the principle of Total Internal Reflection, lines of brilliant white or colored light. Light pipes are made of extruded, impact resistant, clear acrylic, and use a 250 watt, metal halide lamp, with a life of approximately 10,000 hours. One luminaire is required for every 44-foot run of light guide.
Various architectural and decorative lighting applications are ideally suited to use of the light pipe. As the entire length of the 'pipe' emits light, the light pipe might be used to provide lighting above a swimming pool or to other generally inaccessible locations. The luminaire is usually located in an accessible location, along the side of the pool area.

See also: [LIGHT PIPE].

 

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VARI-LITE - (1981)
VARI*LITE - Although a number of attempts had been made in recent years at developing a 'moving' or automated, lighting fixture, the Vari*Lite was the first to gain acceptance. In fact the Vari*Lite revolutionized the music and entertainment lighting industry. Automated fixtures, that pan, tilt, change color, project different patterns - are extremely complex devices. The Vari*Lite, Model 1, was introduced on the Genesis tour in 1981, by Showco, USA.

VL1 - introduced in 1981
VL2C - spot luminaire, introduced in 1993, (uses 600 watt HTI source)
VL5 - wash luminaire. incandescent model.
VL5A - wash luminaire, 575W MSR, twice as bright, as VL5.

Also see: [AUTOMATED LIGHTING FIXTURES]

Additional reading: Lighting Dimensions Nov. 1986 (great photos)

Vari-Lite Inc.
201 Regal Row
Dallas, TX, 75247, USA
214-630-1963
WWW: http://www.vari-lite.comhistoryhistory

 

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DMX512 - (1986)
DMX512 is a standard for digital data transmission between lighting controllers and dimmers. A committee of the United States Institute for Theatre Technology developed DMX512 as a non proprietary digital protocol to be used by all manufacturers. DMX512 uses a small twisted pair cable to communicate with a large number of dimmers. It does so by digitally encoding the dimmer level information and sending the data for multiple dimmers over the control cable, one dimmer at a time, one after another. The dimmer level is encoded as one byte (eight bits). The information is sent to the dimmers at a rapid rate, and has to always be present to keep the dimmer from going to black. Update rate of 20 - 40 times per second are common.
Up to 512 dimmers can be controlled on a single twisted pair. Often a second twisted pair is also run for 'talkback' or other applications. DMX applications typically use 5 pin XLR type connectors. The use of 3 pin XLR connectors is not recommended by the USITT standard.

Pin 1 - shield - ground
Pin 2 - black - data (-)-
Pin 3 - white - data (+)
Pin 4 - green - spare data (-)
Pin 5 - red - spare date (+)

See also: [AMX192].

Additional reading: Recommended Practice for DMX512 by Adam Bennette, 1994, published by PLASA & USITT.

 

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ENTERTAINMENT SERVICES & TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION - (1987)
E.S.T.A. (ESTA) - Founded in 1987, ESTA is a non-profit trade association representing the North American entertainment technology industry. Many of the members are equipment dealers or manufacturers. Other members provide services only. In addition to members in the United States and Canada, ESTA has members in a number of countries, throughout the world.
ESTA
875 Sixth Avenue
New York, NY, 10001, USA
212-244-1505
WWW: http://www.esta.org/historyhistory

 

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SUNLIGHT AND CANCER - (a 1990)
It was in the early 1990's when modern medicine brought us the bad new regarding sun and skin cancer. Now the evidence is clear and indisputable. There is no such thing as a 'nice natural tan' anymore . Although we still worship the sun, as did our ancestors, we now do so with a whole new respect.
There are three kinds of skin cancer, basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and melanomas. In the US there were 500,000 cases of the first, 100,000 of the second, and 27,600 of the third in 1990. [Wayne] More than 90% of the skin carcinomas in the US are attributed to UV-B exposure: their frequency varies sharply with latitude, just as UV does. The mechanism by which UV-B induces carcinomas has been identified - the pyrimidine bases in the DNA molecule form dimers when stimulated by UV-B radiation. [Taylor] [Tevini] [Young et al.]. Fortunately, these cancers are relatively easy to treat if detected in time, and are rarely fatal. Skin carcinoma rates vary sharply with latitude, just as UV-B does. Fair-skinned people of North European ancestry are particularly susceptible; the highest rates in the world are found in Queensland, a northerly province of Australia, where a population of largely English and Irish extraction is exposed to very high natural UV radiation levels.

Malignant melanoma is much more dangerous, but its connection with UV exposure is not well understood. There seems to a correlation between melanomas and brief, intense exposures to UV (long before the cancer appears.) Melanoma incidence is definitely correlated with latitude, with twice as many deaths (relative to state population) in Florida or Texas as in Wisconsin or Montana, but this correlation need not imply a causal relationship. Some claim that UV-A, which is not absorbed by ozone, may be involved. [Skolnick] [Setlow et al.]

 

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SULFUR LAMP - (1994)
One of the more exciting recent developments in light source technology is the sulfur lamp. This source was developed in 1994 by Fusion Lighting (USA), with support from the U.S, Department of Energy. About the size of a golf ball, the sulfur lamp consists of a quartz bulb containing non-toxic sulfur and inert argon gas at the end of a thin glass stick. A microwave energy source of 2.45 Ghz. (magnetron) bombards the lamp while a fan cooled motor spins the lamp at 3400 rpm. The microwave energy excites the gas, which heats the sulfur, forming a brightly glowing plasma that can illuminate a very large area.
The first early prototype lamps were 5.9 Kw. units with a system efficacy of 80 lumens per watt. Correlated color temperature was about 6000K with a color rendering index of 79 CRI. The sulfur lamp starts within seconds even at low ambient temperatures and can be dimmed. The surfer lamp emits no electric or magnetic fields and the light output remains constant over its life.

A new version, the LightDrive 1000, is a 1425 watt device that produces 135,000 lumens after about 20 seconds. The current technology produces approximately 120 lumens per watt (including losses).

The energy output is continuous throughout the visual spectrum (much like sunlight) however the source is low in both the ultraviolet and infrared energy. The design life of the lamp is currently approximately 60,000 hours, however the design life of the magnetron is currently only about 15,000-20,000 hours.

One of the first early fixtures to use the sulfur lamp was developed by Cooper Lighting (USA). The fixture was incorporated into a free standing kiosk, providing uplight to the ceiling and a fixture efficiency of 85-88 percent. Other lighting companies are currently working with Fusion lighting to develop new fixtures and equipment for the sulfur lamp.

Fusion Lighting, USA, 301-284-7236.

 

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MODERN STAGE LIGHTING DESIGNERS


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BENTHAM, FREDERICK
Frederick Bentham (Britain) is an acknowledged pioneer and authority on lighting for the stage. He was in charge of research and development at [STRAND ELECTRIC] from approximately 1935, until 1965. He was responsible for the technical development of many early Strand lighting fixtures and related products.
Bentham published a book on 'The Art of Stage Lighting' in 1968. This publication has been revised and is still today considered to be a major textbook on the subject.

Bentham was also the author of "Tabs" from its inception in 1938 until 1973.

 

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BILLINGTON, KEN
Ken Billington is a well known, New York based stage lighting designer. He studied at The Studio and Forum of Stage Design in New York, and later went on to assist Tharon Musser, Tom Skelton, and others. He has designed the lighting for over 50 Broadway productions (including; Fiddler on the Roof & Sweeney Todd) and his concert credits include work with Shirley MacLaine, Ann-Margaret and Liza Minnelli. He won a Tony award for his lighting of 'Chicago'.


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BRIDGE, ANDREW
"Stage lighting designer (British). Bridge won the Tony, Drama Desk and Outer Critics' Circle Awards for his designs for the "Phantom of the Opera". West End credits include the Musicals, "Time", "Oliver", "An Evening with Tommy Steele", "Troville and Dean", "Bing Crosby" and many others". (REF: quote from, Rosco, Pattern Catalog, 1996)


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CLARK, PEGGY
Peggy Clark is a leading American stage lighting designer (American).


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DAVIDSON, DAVID
"Davidson, has designed the lighting for some of the most acclaimed performers and acts in the world. A partial list of his most recent clients includes Bon Jovi, Van Halen, Jackson Brown, and Kiss. In addition, he has designed lighting for such acts as Ted Nugent, Stray Cats, The Kinks, Englebert Humperdinct, The Jacksons, Santana, The Blues Brothers and Hot Tuna." (REF: quote from, Rosco, Pattern Catalog, 1996)


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FEDER, ABE
Abe Feder was one of the first independent lighting designers in both the theatrical and architectural worlds. His Broadway credits include "My Fair Lady" and "Camelot". His architectural lighting credits range the world and include the United Nations in New York, the Israel National Museum in Jerusalem, Philharmonic Hall in Lincoln Center and the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C.


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FEHER, ERWIN M.
Studied stage design at the Federal Institute of Technology, Graz, Austria and at Columbia University. He worked in the graduate school of Yale University-MFA program. He joined with JO MIELZINER in planning for the New York World's Fair in 1964, and for a time was a specialist for projection design at New York's Metropolitan Opera. Erwin Feher published a number of books, including the very comprehensive "Towards a Theater of Light".


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FINGERHUT, ARDEN
Stage lighting designer (American)


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FISHER, JULES
Jules Fisher is a well known American lighting designer, who works extensively in both theatre and architectural lighting design. His Broadway credits include the lighting for "No No Nanette", "Hair", "Lenny", "Pippin", "Butterflies are Free", "Half a Sixpence", "High Spirits", and many more. He has won 6 Tony Awards and in his spare time, he practices magic.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

GALLO, PAUL
Paul Gallo (New York), has designed the lighting for many Broadway productions, including "Six Degrees of Separation", "The Little Foxes", "Grown Ups", "Heartbreak House", and many others. He has received Tony nominations for "Anything Goes" (1988), "The House of Blue Leaves" (1988) and "The City of Angels" (1990). He is also the recipient of two Obe Awards and the Maharam Award. (REF: quote from, Rosco, Pattern Catalog, 1996).


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GLEASON, JOHN
Gleason (American) was the Associate Chair of the Department of Design at New York University and was the resident lighting designer for the Repertory Theater of Lincoln Center from 1967 to 1972. He designed the acclaimed revival of "A Streetcar Named Desire". On Broadway, he has designed more than 90 shows, including: "My Fair Lady", "Hello Dolly", "The Great White Hope", and "Over Here".


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HERSEY, DAVID
David Hersey, (American) stage lighting designer, has lived in London for over twenty years and has designed over 200 production for major national theatre, operas and ballet companies. West End productions include: Cats, Starlight Express, Les Mis‚rables, Chess and Miss Saigon. For ten years he was lighting consultant for the National Theatre in London. His work has also been seen in New York on Broadway. David Hersey also manages D.H.A., a leading British supplier of specialized lighting accessories and effects.


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MUSSER, THARON
Tharon Musser is a well known American stage lighting designer. She has received three Tony Awards for her work on "Follies", "A Chorus Line", and "Dream Girls". Her many contributions include being the first lighting designer to use a computer lighting system on Broadway. She has designed plays and many musicals and operas around the world. Her work on Broadway includes: "The Sunshine Boys", "A Little Night Music", "Applause", "A Long Day's Journey Into Night", "42nd Street", "The Wiz", "Chorus Line", "Follies" and "Ballroom".
Additional reading: Lighting Dimensions, March 1990.

 

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PILBROW, RICHARD
Richard Pilbrow (Britain) is a leading designer and authority on the subject of stage lighting. His work since 1958 has been seen in more than 200 productions, principally in London but also in New York and Moscow. His excellent book on lighting; "Stage Lighting", first published in 1970, is often considered to be a leading text on the subject. His new book "Stage Lighting Design" was published in 1997.
Richard Pilbrow is also founder of Theatre Projects, a large London based theatre consulting firm, now also based in the USA. As theatre consultant, he has designed the stages and lighting for a number of theatres, including the National Theatre of Great Britain, the Calgary Centre for the Performing Arts (Canada), and the Barbican Theatre for the Royal Shakespeare company.

 

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LESTER POLAKOV
Stage designer (U.S.A.) Polakov formed and ran the Lester Polakov Studio and Forum of Stage Design at 727 Washington Street in New York City for many years. Reid is a well known British lighting designer and consultant. He is also the author of a great many articles relating to theatre and stage lighting.


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SVOBODA, JOSEF
One of the most renowned and inventive designers in the world today is the contemporary Czech designer, Josef Svoboda. With hundreds of productions to his credit, Svoboda is best known for his remarkable technical innovations in lighting, projection and kinetic scenery. Svoboda views science and technology as a means to an end, as instruments to be controlled by an artistic vision. More often than is generally thought, his scenography employs the simplest of technical devices or virtually eliminates them. What is almost never absent from his work however is a poetic, theatrically organized sensibility.
Additional reading: Theatre Design and Technology, Summer 1976 and February 1970)

 

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TIPTON, JENNIFER
Jennifer Tipton (American), is a well known lighting designer for theatre dance and opera. She has designed the lighting for such leading choreographers as Jerome Robbins, Mikhall Baryshnikov and Twyla Tharp. She won a Tony award for her lighting of "The Cherry Orchard". Her many lighting awards include two Bessies, two Tonys, a Joseph Jefferson Award, a Kudo, and others. Ms. Tipton also teaches lighting at the Yale University School of Drama.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

WECHSLER, GIL
Stage lighting designer (American)


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

WHITFIELD, MICHAEL
Michael Whitfield has designed over 50 productions for the Canadian Opera Company in Toronto and more than 80 productions for the Stratford Shakespearean Festival where he is the resident lighting designer. The operas cover the entire range from Albert Herring to Idomeneo and include among others Fidelio, Aida and Electra. In addition to productions at Stratford, he has designed such productions as Cabaret, Carousel and Our Town. His designs have also been seen at the San Francisco Opera, the Welsh National Opera, De Nederlandse Operastichting, the National Ballet of Canada, Canadian regional theatres and in London's West End. (REF: quote from, Rosco, ad. TCI. April 1993).


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WILLIAMS, BILL
Bill Williams is a well known Canadian lighting designer, working in the fields of stage and architectural lighting design. Williams studied lighting design in New York, at The Studio and Forum of Stage Design, where his work was strongly influenced by one of his teachers, lighting designer Tom Skelton. In the 1960's Williams worked as a designer with the New York based, multimedia group 'Pablo', where he designed and developed special effects and projection equipment for one of the world's leading 'light shows'.
In the early 1970's, Williams returned to Canada and established an active design practice in Winnipeg. When not designing for the stage, he works as a theatre consultant, assisting architects with the design of theatres and cultural facilities. Subsequent work has included more than 500 projects in over a dozen countries, around the world. Bill Williams is a member of the Associated Designers of Canada and is also the author of this file.

 

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LIGHT - NATURAL PHENOMENA

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SUN & SUNLIGHT
For years, man thought that the earth was the center of the known universe, not the sun. It was only in the 16th Century that COPERNICUS finally proved the sun to be the center of our solar system.
The main part of the sun's radiation at sea level, lies between about 290 and 3,500 nanometers The shorter wavelengths are [ULTRAVIOLET], and the longer are [INFRARED]. Visible wavelengths lie in the relatively narrow wavelength band of 380 to 770 nanometers. Intensity and spectral composition of natural daylight vary with time of day, season, geographical location and weather.

 

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MOON & MOONLIGHT
The moon shines solely by virtue of its ability to reflect sunlight. It is approximately 238,000 miles from the earth. It takes about 8 minutes for the light of the sun to reach the moon and another 1.3 seconds for the light reflected from the moon, to reach the earth.
Illumination on the earth's surface by the moon may be as high as 0.2 lux, (.002 fc).

 

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LIGHTNING
Lightning is a meteorological phenomenon arising from accumulation, in the formation of clouds, of large electrical charges. The charges are (usually positive) are suddenly released in a spark type of discharge.
About 100 times every second, the earth is struck with lightning, which streams down in belts 1,000 to 9,000 feet long. A single bolt may develop 3750 kilowatts. About 75 percent of the energy in lightning is dissipated as heat that rises the temperature of surrounding air to about 27,000øF. This causes the air to expand quickly, like the gases in an explosion. The movement creates sound waves that can be heard as thunder for distances of up to 18 miles. ..(REF: Time, Energy, 1963) (PHOTO: Time, Energy, 1996)

Divide time delay (in seconds) between lightning and thunder by 5, to calculate approximate storm distance (in miles).

 

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AURORA BOREALIS (NORTHERN LIGHTS)
"These hazy horizontal patches or bands of greenish light on which white, pink or red streamers sometimes are superimposed appear 60 to 120 miles above the earth. They are caused by electron streams spiraling into the atmosphere, primarily at polar latitudes". (REF: quote from: I.E.S. Lighting Handbook - Ref. Vol. 1881)


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AURORA AUSTRALIS (SOUTHERN LIGHTS)
The same phenomenon of the Northern Lights, also exists in the southern hemisphere and is know as the Aurora Australis. See also: [AURORA BOREALIS].


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BIOLUMINESCENCE
"Living Light - is a form of chemiluminescence in which special compounds manufactured by plants and animals are oxidized, producing light. Although is has been proven that oxygen is required to produce bio luminescence, there is no evidence that the light producing compound must be a 'living' material The light producing compound may be dried and stored for many years and upon exposure to oxygen, emit light". (REF: I.E.S. Lighting Handbook - Ref. Vol. 1981)


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MAN MADE LIGHT SOURCES

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"Historically, light sources have been divided into two types - incandescent and luminescent. Fundamentally the cause of light emission is the same , i.e., electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states. The mode of electron excitement is different, however, as well as the spectral distribution of radiation. Incandescent solid substances basically emit a continuous spectrum, while gaseous discharges radiate mainly in discrete spectral lines, however there is some overlapping. Incandescent rare earth elements can emit lines, whereas high pressure discharge produces a continuous spectrum".


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LIGHT - QUOTATIONS
We owe a lot to Thomas Edison - if it wasn't for him, we'd be watching television by candlelight. (Milton Berne)
Many a man has fallen in love with a girl, in a light so dim, he would not have chosen a suit by it. (Anon)

And GOD said "Let there be light", and there was light, and GOD saw that is was good, and put the bloody electricity bill up by 4 pence a unit. (Anon)

The weight of moonlight on the oceans causes the water to spread out to the edges of the land. (G.E. Last, 19th Century)

The Speed of light is very fast. (Carl Sagan)

Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night, God said, "Let Newton be," and all was light. (Anon)

Genius is one per cent inspiration and ninety-nine per cent perspiration. (Thomas Alva Edison)

All art is quite useless. (Oscar Wilde)

No great artist ever sees things as they are. If he did he would cease to be an artist. (Oscar Wilde)

She is like most artists; she has style without sincerity. (Oscar Wilde)

Writing about art is like dancing about architecture. (Anon)

The sun was shining on the sea,
Shining with all his might:
He did his very best to make
The billows smooth and bright --
And this was very odd, because it was
The middle of the night.
(Lewis Carroll)

We will have solar energy as soon as the utility companies solve one technical problem -- how to run a sunbeam through a meter. (Anon)

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bailey, Donald M. "Greek & Roman Pottery Lamps", British Museum (1972)
Bamber, Gascoigne "World Theatre" Little Brown & Co. (1968).
Bova, Ben "The Beauty of Light", John Wiley & Sons Inc. (1988).
Cohen, Bernard "Franklin & Newton", Harvard University Press, (1966)
Dogigli, Johannes "The Magic of Rays" Knopf Inc. (1961).
Feher, E.M. "Towards A Theatre Of Light", (c 1970).
Hartnoll, Phyllis "A Concise History of the Theatre" Thame & Hudson 74.
Holt, Reinhart & Winston Inc. "Modern Physics", (1960).
Illuminating Engineering Society, Lighting Handbook, Applications (1987)
Illuminating Engineering Society, Lighting Handbook, Reference (1981)
Life Science Library "Planets", (1966).
Life Science Library, "The Scientist", (1964)
McCandless, Stanley, "A Syllabus of Stage Lighting" Yale Univ. (1964)
Penzel, Frederick "Theatre Lighting Before Electricity" Wesleyan (1978)
Pilbrow, Richard "Stage Lighting" (1970)
Rodgers, A. "History of Light Sources" (Slide Set & text), c 1974).
Time-Life Books "The First Men - Emergence of Man" (1973)
Trevor-Roper, Patrick "The World through blunted sight" B.Merril (1970)
Sagan, Carl & Leonard. Jonathan "Planets", Time/Life. (1966)
Schawlow, Arthur "Laser Light', Scientific American, Sept. (1968).
World population figures: "The Beauty of Light", Ben Bova, (1988)
Write, W.D. "Measurement of Color", Hilger & Watts Ltd, London. (1964)


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